A single unified track for joint implementation projects, standardized baselines and positive lists of project types that would automatically be deemed additional as well as the introduction of 15 calendar days as the maximum average time between the receipt of a submission and the commencement of the completeness check are among main points recommended to streamline processes in the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.
Documents adopted at Doha stressed the need to ensure the continued success of joint implementation (JI) and clean development (CDM) mechanisms after the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in contributing to the achievement of the objective of the Convention.
The said documents with respect to JI mention that 327 project design documents, one programme of activities design document, 51 determinations regarding project design documents, 105 monitoring reports and 96 verifications of reductions in anthropogenic emissions by sources or enhancements of anthropogenic removals by sinks have been made publicly available in accordance with joint implementation guidelines, that there are currently 11 accredited independent entities, and that to date over 400 million emission reduction units have been issued.
When it comes to CDM during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol over 5,200 clean development mechanism project activities have been registered in over 80 countries, with over 50 programmes of activities being registered in 27 countries, over one billion certified emission reductions being issued and in excess of USD 215 billion being invested.
Nevertheless, admitting certain flaws of the existing model and the need for constant improvement the subject of consideration by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol at its ninth session will be recommendations on draft revised joint implementation guidelines, and the first review and decision on the revised modalities and procedures for the clean development mechanism.
As follows from the draft decisions of the CMP.8 published by the UNFCCC the set of key attributes that will characterise the future operation of joint implementation in the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has been agreed:
(a) A single unified track for joint implementation projects;
(b) Closely aligned or unified accreditation procedures between joint implementation and the clean development mechanism that take into account differences in the respective modalities and procedures of the two mechanisms;
(c) Clear and transparent information regarding all relevant public information required for joint implementation projects by stakeholders, accredited independent entities and host Parties in English on the UNFCCC website in accordance with decision 13/CMP.1;
(d) An appeals process under the authority of and accountable to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol against decisions of the Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee;
(e) Clear, transparent and objective requirements to ensure that projects are additional to what would otherwise occur;
(f) Mandatory requirements for host Parties with respect to the approval of baselines, monitoring and reporting, including clear, transparent and objective requirements for the setting of standardized baselines by host Parties;
The Subsidiary Body for Implementation has also been requested in preparing the revised joint implementation guidelines to address the additionality of joint implementation projects, recognizing such concepts as positive lists of project types that would automatically be deemed additional and prior consideration of joint implementation projects, taking into account, as appropriate, the application of standardized baselines.
As regards the CDM modalities in the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol the said draft decisions of the CMP.8 among others:
(a) Welcomed the adoption by the Executive Board of improved standards for the demonstration of additionality, in particular with regard to “first-of-its-kind” and common practice; the work undertaken by the Executive Board in further developing and implementing the regulatory framework relating to standardized baselines has been welcomed;
(b) Encouraged the Executive Board to further extend the simplified modalities for the demonstration of additionality, including positive lists, to a wider scope of small-scale project activities, while ensuring environmental integrity;
(c) Requested the Executive Board and the secretariat to continue seeking ways to streamline the processes for the registration of clean development mechanism project activities and programmes of activities, and the issuance of certified emission reductions, to ensure that the average time between the receipt of a submission and the commencement of the completeness check is fewer than 15 calendar days;
It appears that also the initiative to include CCS in clean development mechanism project activities has gained momentum, since the Doha decisions stipulated that the eligibility under the clean development mechanism of carbon dioxide capture and storage in geological formations project activities which involve the transport of carbon dioxide from one country to another or which involve geological storage sites that are in more than one country and the establishment of a global reserve of certified emission reduction units for carbon dioxide capture and storage in geological formations project activities should be considered by Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice at its forty-fifth session.