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Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RED)
European Union Electricity Market Glossary

 

 

Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (Renewable Energy Directive - RED) sets binding targets for the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the final energy consumption of each EU Member State.

 

These targets range from 10 % (Malta) to 49 % (Sweden) and amount to an EU share of at least 20 % RES in fnal energy consumption by 2020 - the goal pursued by the EU’s 2020 climate and energy package (along with a 20 per cent reduction, below 1990 levels, in GHG emissions (EU ETS Directive) and a 20 per cent improvement in energy efficiency (Energy Efficiency Directive (EED)).

 

Furthermore, the RES Directive:

 

- sets the target of a 10 % share of RES in the transport sector by 2020 (limited progress so far in most Member States),


- introduces a series of cross-border cooperation mechanisms and joint projects to promote RES (low take-up so far in Member States), and


- sets out the EU sustainability criteria for biofuels.
 

In 2015 the RES Directive and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) were amended (Directive (EU) 2015/1513 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 September 2015 amending Directive 98/70/EC relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) to recognise and mitigate the negative environmental impact of the biofuels production on indirect land-use change and related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

 

These revisions enhanced the sustainability criteria for biofuels, more stringent requirements of reducing GHG emissions were also specified.

 

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission launched the Winter Energy Package, which included a recast of the Directive on the promotion of renewable energy sources (Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (recast) COM/2016/0767 final/2 - 2016/0382 (COD) - ‘RES Directive’).

 

It is intended to drive progress in meeting the goals of the 2030 EU Climate and Energy Framework, in particular the binding target of a 27 % EU share of RES in final energy consumption by 2030 set by the European Council in October 2014.

 

The European Council specifed that the 27 % target should be binding on the EU as a whole, but should be achieved without setting legally binding national targets, in order to provide more fexibility for Member States.

 

The recast RES directive provides guiding principles on future financial support schemes for RES, renewable energy self-consumption, renewable energy communities, and district heating and cooling systems.

 

The recast directive enhances mechanisms for cross-border cooperation, simplifes administrative processes and outlines measures to mainstream the use of RES in the transport and heating and cooling sector.

 

The recast directive strengthens the sustainability and greenhouse gas emissions savings criteria for biofuels.

 

According to the European Commission’s answer of 6 April 2017 to a written Parliamentary question (E-000661/2017) the proposal of the recast of the Renewable Energy Directive does not include any provisions providing support for crop-based biofuels.

 

Furthermore, it is proposed that the share of crop-based biofuels that could account towards the EU renewable energy target would gradually decrease to 3.8% in 2030.

 

Moreover the revised RES directive foresees some structural changes to the EU energy market legislation:

 

- all monitoring and reporting obligations are transferred to the proposed regulation on energy union governance, and

 

- provisions relating to grid access are transferred to the regulation on electricity markets.

 

 The recast directive would enter into force on 1 January 2021, when the existing RES Directive would be repealed.

 

The proposed transposition date for Member States is 30 June 2021.

 

 

 

 

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Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (recast) COM/2016/0767 final/2 - 2016/0382 (COD)

 

 

 

 

   

 

numbering blue   Financial support schemes

 

 

1. the EU Member States may apply support schemes so long as these avoid unnecessary distortions of electricity markets, take into account balancing and grid constraints, and respond to market signals through competitive tendering

 

2. retroactive changes to RES support schemes are forbidden

 

3. each year the EU Member States must open a minimum share of new support schemes to RES generated electricity from other EU Member States (10 % of new capacity 2021-2025, 15 % of new capacity 2026-2030)

 

4. the energy produced under these support schemes counts towards the Member States funding the installation

 

5. long-term schedules on expected financial support schemes must be published, they must cover at least the next three years and include the indicative timing, capacity sought and available budget

 

 

numbering blue   RES permit-granting procedure

 

  

1. maximum time for the processing of permits:

 

- three years for new capacity

 

- one year for requests related to repowering of existing renewable energy plants

 

- six months if such requests have no signifcant negative environmental and social impacts

 

2. a simple notifcation procedure for all new RES projects and installations with a capacity of under 50 kW seeking connection to the grid

 

3.  ‘one stop shops’ must be set up to coordinate the permit-granting process for new RES generation, transmission and distribution capacity

 

 

numbering blue   Heating and cooling sector

 

 

1. the share of renewable energy supplied for heating and cooling should be increased by at least 1 percentage point every year

 

2. data on the energy supplied for heating and cooling, including the proportion obtained from diferent RES, should be provided by the EU Member States

 

3. right for consumers to disconnect from inefficient district heating and cooling systems

 

 

numbering blue   Transport sector

 

 

1. fuel suppliers obliged to include a minimum share of energy derived from biofuels or biogas in the total transport fuels they supply for consumption or use on the market - at least equal to 1.5 % in 2021, increasing annually up to at least 6.8 % by 2030

 

2. at least 0.5 % of the fuel supply in transport must either come from advanced biofuels (also known as ‘second generation’ biofuels) produced from biomass, or from biogas produced from feedstock, this minimum share increases annually up to at least 3.6 % in 2030

 

3. a ceiling of 7 % set on the final energy consumption that is accounted for by biofuels produced from food or feed crops (the ceiling reduced annually to no more than 3.8 % in 2030)

 

4. although the EU Member States remain free to develop a higher share of such biofuels in their energy mix, the volumes above the ceiling do not contribute towards meeting their RES targets

 

5. the existing requirement for a 10 % share of biofuels in transport is removed

 

6. gas can be produced from renewable sources, whether of biological origin (‘biogas’) or non-biological origin (e.g. hydrogen fuel), such forms of renewable gas are considered RES and contribute towards calculating the share of RES in the final energy consumption, as well as become eligible for EU financial support schemes (guarantees of origin, etc.)

 

 

numbering blue  Sustainability and GHG emissions-saving criteria for biofuels, bioliquids and biomass

 

 

1. a new sustainability criterion for forest biomass

 

2. the required GHG emissions savings from biofuels and bioliquids increased to at least 70 % for installations starting operations from 2021 onwards, and at least 80 % for electricity, heating and cooling from biomass

 

3. the latter target would increase to 85 % for installations starting operations from 2026 onwards

 

4. existing or forthcoming installations would only need to meet the less stringent requirements of the existing RES Directive: at least 50 % for installations in operation before 5 October 2015; and at least 60 % for installations in operation from 5 October 2015.

 

 

 

 

Trilogue negotiations for the recast Directive started in February 2018 and concluded with a provisional agreement on 14 June 2018.

 

The agreed text was subsequently endorsed by Coreper (29 June) and the ITRE committee (10 July) and submitted for formal approval in a plenary session of the Parliament and afterwards by the Council.

 

The Provisional Agreement of 27 June 2018 resulting from inter-institutional negotiations), in particular:

 

- sets a 32 % binding EU target for the share of RES in final energy consumption by 2030, to be met by indicative national contributions (individual EU Member States cannot go below their RES share for 2020, listed in the existing directive), the European Commission should re-assess the 32 % target by 2023,


- makes the opening of RES support schemes to cross-border capacity an indicative choice for Member States, setting targets of 5 % per annum for the period 2023-202) and then 10 % per annum for 2027-2030 (the European Commission had proposed more ambitious and binding targets that would take effect earlier).

 

The Provisional Agreement set a binding EU minimum target of a 14 % RES share in the transport sector, calculated as a proportion of fuel supplies on the EU market.

 

The share of conventional biofuels on road and rail are to be capped at 7 % EU-wide, with additional caps on the EU Member States where the share is already below this level.

 

Advanced biofuels should rise from low levels to a minimum share of 3.5 % by 2030.

 

Use of biofuels that rely on high risk of indirect land-use-change crops (including palm oil) are to be capped at 2019 levels in each EU Member State, gradually reducing to 0 % by 2030 (this can be assessed as less radical than the European Parliament proposal to stop recognising palm oil as a RES from 2021, but does also encompass other crops used to produce biofuels).

 

The European Commission is required to adopt a delegated act in 2019 on certification schemes for biofuels, and apply these criteria to RES calculations over the ensuing decade.

 

The Provisional Agreement set higher GHG emissions savings criteria for biofuels and bioliquids.

 

Moreover, the EU Member States are expected (but not obliged) to increase their share of heating and cooling from RES by 1.3 % per annum, with a lower target (1.1 %) set for Member States where waste heat or cold are not used in their energy systems.

 

New installations, from 2021, will need to reduce GHG emissions by 65 % (compared to equivalent fossil fuels) in order to be defined as a RES.

 

Biomass for electricity, heating and cooling will need to reduce GHG emissions by 70 % from 2021, rising to 80 % reductions from 2026.

 

These provisions apply only to new installations (older ones have less stringent criteria that remain unchanged).

 

The said targets are less ambitious than in the original European Commission proposal (70 % for transport fuels, 80 % for biomass installations from 2021 and 85 % from 2026) and reflect the preferences expressed by both Parliament and Council in the negotiations.

 

On 21 December 2018 the Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (so-called RED II) has been published in the Official Journal of the European Union.

 

 

 

 

 

 

chronicle

 RED regulatory chronicle 

 

 

 

 

21 December 2018

 

Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RED II) published in the Official Journal of the European Union 

 

13 November 2018

 

Commission welcomes European Parliament adoption of key files of the Clean Energy for All Europeans package

 

27 June 2018

 

Provisional Agreement Resulting from Interinstitutional Negotiations of the Directive of European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (recast)

 

14 June 2018

 

Political agreement on increasing renewable energy use in Europe was reached between negotiators from the Commission, the European Parliament and the Council

 

17 January 2018

 

Amendments adopted by the European Parliament on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (recast) (COM(2016)0767 – C8-0500/2016 – 2016/0382(COD)), provisional edition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IMG 0744

    Documentation    

 

 

 

 

 

Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RED II)

 

Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC (RED I)

 

Amendments adopted by the European Parliament on 17 January 2018 on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (recast) (COM(2016)0767 – C8-0500/2016 – 2016/0382(COD)), provisional edition

 

Renewable Energy Directive Target, IP/A/ITRE/2017-03, January 2018 

 

European Parliament, Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, Report of 6 December 2017 on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (recast) (COM(2016)0767 – C8-0500/2016 – 2016/0382(COD))

 

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (recast) COM/2016/0767 final/2 - 2016/0382 (COD)

 

Directive (EU) 2015/1513 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 September 2015 amending Directive 98/70/EC relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources

 

European Commission’s answer of 6 April 2017 to a written Parliamentary question (E-000661/2017)

 

Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) - Directive 2009/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 98/70/EC as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil and introducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and amending Council Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the specification of fuel used by inland waterway vessels and repealing Directive 93/12/EEC

 

Renewable energy progress report, 15.6.2015, {SWD(2015) 117 final} COM(2015) 293 final

 

Kononenko, V., Use of energy from renewable sources, Initial appraisal of a European Commission impact assessment, EPRS, June 2017

 

Erbach, G., Promotion of renewable energy sources in the EU, EPRS, June 2016

 

The impact of biofuels on transport and the environment, and their connection with agricultural development in Europe, Study for Transport and Tourism Committee, Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies, European Parliament, February 2015

 

 

 

 

 

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    Links    

 

 

 

 

 

Promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, European Parliament, Legislative Observatory (OEIL)

 

European Parliament Briefing - Promoting renewable energy sources in the EU after 2020

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Last Updated on Friday, 16 August 2019 20:33
 

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