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Distribution System Operators (DSOs)
European Union Electricity Market Glossary

 

Distribution System Operators (DSOs) in the European Union Internal Electricity Market are responsible for providing and operating low, medium and high voltage networks for regional distribution of electricity as well as for supply of lower-level distribution systems and directly connected customers (Articles 2 and 25 of Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC).

 

Although the definitions of the DSO as well as the distribution “originate in the context of electricity distribution systems, they can also be applied for the operators of distribution systems for gas at high and low pressure” (CEER Conclusions Paper of 22 March 2019, New Services and DSO Involvement, Ref: C18-DS-46-08, p. 9).

 

European Energy Regulators’ White Paper # 2, The Role of the DSO, Relevant to European Commission’s Clean Energy Proposals of 15 May 2017 observes DSOs operate local electricity networks, traditionally distributing electricity from the higher-voltage transmission network and from small generators into homes and businesses, similar to regional/local roads on the road network.

 

The aforementioned White Paper of 15 May 2017 stresses that DSOs are typically natural monopolies, overseen by energy regulators to ensure that they deliver value for money to consumers.

 

According to Article 2(6) of the said Directive 2009/72/EC, 'Distribution System Operator' is 'a natural or legal person responsible for operating, ensuring the maintenance of and, if necessary, developing the distribution system in a given area and, where applicable, its interconnections with other systems and for ensuring the long-term ability of the system to meet reasonable demands for the distribution of electricity.'

 

This definition is left unchanged by the so-called 'Winter Energy Package' proposed by the European Commission in December 2016.

 

Besides the regional distribution and supply task it is also the DSOs' responsibility to ensure the security of their networks with a high level of reliability and quality.

 

The thresholds, which determine whether a system is a transmission system or a distribution system, are established at the national level (Recital 9 of the Network Code on Demand Connection (DCC)).

 

The DSO's category is characterised by an extensive heterogeneity across the EU Member States - in some Member States there are hundreds of DSOs, in other countries there might be only one or two.

 

A sub-set of the DSOs' generic category are Closed Distribution System Operators (CDSOs).

 

 

DSO separation - unbundling rules

 

 

There are different levels of DSO separation, the main types of unbundling being: accounting, functional, legal and ownership separation.

 

- Full ownership unbundling (ownership separation) is where the DSO is a separate company to any interests in generation or supply;

 

 

"DSOs need to facilitate new arrangements by acting as neutral market facilitators with the interest of the IEM at the forefront. This requires a sufficient level of unbundling between suppliers and associated DSOs. With the increasing penetration of distributed (including RES-based) generation, DSOs will be called to manage their systems in a more active way, similarly to TSOs, including by taking responsibility for managing congestions using local resources connected at the distribution level (with DSR among them). Therefore, the cooperation between DSOs and TSOs should be enhanced. Moreover the same level of separation of DSO functions from other activities, as envisaged for TSOs, should be considered. Exceptions could be maintained for very small DSOs, which are unlikely having to perform TSO-like functions. In this respect, we suggest significantly reducing the current de minimis threshold"

 

(Joint ACER-CEER response to European Commission's Consultation on a new Energy Market Design of 7 October 2015, p. 20, 21)

 

- Legal unbundling is where the DSO is a legally separate entity with its own independent decision making board, but remains within the umbrella of a Vertically-Integrated Undertaking (VIU).

 

- Functional or management unbundling is where the operational, management and accounting activities of a DSO are separated from other activities in the VIU; and

 

- Accounting unbundling is where the DSO business unit must keep separate accounts for its activities to prevent cross subsidisation, from the rest of the VIU.

 

While full ownership unbundling is considered to be the strongest model for the independence of the DSO, the other models can also ensure transparent and independent decision making and equal treatment of all DSO stakeholders, as long as sufficient ringfencing and regulatory monitoring and oversight are in place.

 

Status Review on the Implementation of Distribution System Operators' Unbundling Provisions of the 3rd Energy Package, CEER Status Review, Ref: C15-LTF-43-03, 1 April 2016 observes there are in practice different unbundling regimes implemented in the Member States, some DSOs have a separate ownership to suppliers/producers, whereas others are part of a VIU.

 

Apart from the Netherlands, where full ownership unbundling is required by law, all the other participating Member States require at least a legal and functional unbundling for both gas and electricity DSOs (as far as non-exempted).

 

In most Member States, national provisions foresee that the DSO branding/communication (i.e. corporate identity) must not create confusion with production and supply activities of the VIU.

 

The degree of separation (the most effective being the ownership unbundling) from VIUs will influence whether the DSO is allowed to undertake activities that are listed in the „grey‟ area of the framework under certain conditions. The more DSOs engage in flexibility and DSR, the more robust separation is needed, especially if the DSOs also have a role in data management (see: The Future Role of DSOs, A CEER Public Consultation Paper, Ref: C14-DSO-09-03 16 December 2014).

 

The more responsibility the DSO has, the greater the potential need for further separation of its system operation activities from other competitive activities carried out by other companies of the same VIU (like supply and generation).

 

More generally, if the DSO takes on new roles, sufficient controls are needed to ensure that DSOs do not use access to data to gain commercial advantage or create market distortions.

 

It is also useful to add that the unbundling provisions of the 3rd Package constitute a minimum set of rules and the Member States may consider adopting further measures to ensure the effectiveness of unbundling.

 

 

De-minimis threshold

 

 

Smaller DSOs serving less than 100 000 connected customers can be exempted from the requirements of both legal and functional unbundling.

 

This is based on Article 26(5) of the Directive 2009/72/EC, which stipulates Member States may decide not to apply paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 [of Article 26] to integrated electricity undertakings serving less than 100 000 connected customers, or serving small isolated systems, similar provision exists in the Gas Directive for gas DSO.

 

Almost half of the EU Member States have adopted this exemption at national level (the aforementioned CEER Status Review of 1 April 2016, p. 6). 

 

The number of DSOs with fewer than 100,000 connected consumers varies across Europe.

 

The above-cited CEER Public Consultation Paper of 16 December 2014 expressed the view that all European customers, whether they are connected to a bundled or unbundled DSO, should be able to benefit from the 3rd Package without discrimination.

 

If a DSO is carrying out activities identified as „grey areas‟, it should be subject to strict unbundling requirements regardless of whether or not it is subject to the de-minimis rule.

 

Furthermore, as the role of some DSOs develops into an active grid manager, it may be worthwhile to reconsider the application of the (current) de-minimis rule and if it is still appropriate.

 

Such review could entail either the adaptation or the decrease of said threshold.

 

 

Forward-looking approach - DSOs as neutral market facilitators

 

 

Regulatory bodies consider, with the increasing penetration of distributed (including RES-based) generation, DSOs will be called to play a more active role in the overall management of the electricity system (Joint ACER-CEER response to European Commission's Consultation on a new Energy Market Design of 7 October 2015, p. 28). It is underlined, however, DSOs in Europe are represented by several "associations", not always speaking with one voice.

 

Therefore, consideration should be given to whether DSOs should be encouraged, or mandated, to establish a single body through which they can more efficiently participate in this process.

 

Such a single EU DSO body would also facilitate the communication and cooperation with ENTSO-E, whose effectiveness should be improved given the need of a closer relationship between Transmission System Operators (TSOs) and DSOs.

 

In the same vein goes the Winter Energy Package establishing the EU DSO entity.

 

DSOs are becoming more important in the electricity sector because many new services and developments are happening at local distribution level.

 

They include more active customers with varying electricity demand, self-generation, small-scale renewable generation, energy storage, power-to-heat and electric vehicles.

 

Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) and ACER advocate that DSOs must act as neutral market facilitators performing regulated core activities and not activities that can efficiently and practicably be left to a competitive market.

 

The non-exhaustive list of activities which, in principle, are open for competition is determined in the CEER Conclusions Paper of 22 March 2019 (New Services and DSO Involvement, Ref: C18-DS-46-08, p. 6). The said Paper indicates in this regard the following fields:


- providing flexibility services (including storage),

 

- the development, ownership and operation of EV charging points,

 

- the provision of direct services to consumers (including specific energy efficiency advice),

 

- data analysis services and enriched data to third parties.

 

Moreover, according to the said CEER Paper of 22 March 2019, DSOs may be permitted to offer services outside the energy sector, for example telecommunication services, however, such activity may only be granted under certain conditions.

Regardless, it is crucial that DSOs do not neglect their core tasks and retain separation between their regulated activities and other service provisions.

This is primarily required to avoid cross subsidisation.

 

Moreover, the European energy regulators underline transparency of medium-term forecast of network needs/service requirements is essential to enable market-based solutions to be developed.


Therefore, CEER and ACER supported the prohibition on DSO ownership/operation of energy storage and electric vehicles’ charging infrastructures in Articles 2, 33, 36 (and 54 for TSOs) of the Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the internal market for electricity (recast) on common rules for the internal market in electricity (recast), 30.11.2016, COM(2016) 864 final 2016/0380 (COD).

 

According to Article 15(1) of the Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2195 of 23 November 2017 establishing a guideline on electricity balancing, DSOs, TSOs, balancing service providers (BSPs) and balance responsible parties (BRPs) are required to cooperate in order to ensure efficient and effective electricity balancing.

 

 

 

Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, Articles 24-27

 

Article 24
Designation of distribution system operators


Member States shall designate or shall require undertakings that own or are responsible for distribution systems to designate, for a period of time to be determined by Member States having regard to considerations of efficiency and economic balance, one or more distribution system operators. Member States shall ensure that distribution system operators act in accordance with Articles 25, 26 and 27.


Article 25
Tasks of distribution system operators


1.   The distribution system operator shall be responsible for ensuring the long-term ability of the system to meet reasonable demands for the distribution of electricity, for operating, maintaining and developing under economic conditions a secure, reliable and efficient electricity distribution system in its area with due regard for the environment and energy efficiency.


2.   In any event, it must not discriminate between system users or classes of system users, particularly in favour of its related undertakings.


3.   The distribution system operator shall provide system users with the information they need for efficient access to, including use of, the system.


4.   A Member State may require the distribution system operator, when dispatching generating installations, to give priority to generating installations using renewable energy sources or waste or producing combined heat and power.


5.   Each distribution system operator shall procure the energy it uses to cover energy losses and reserve capacity in its system according to transparent, non-discriminatory and market based procedures, whenever it has such a function. That requirement shall be without prejudice to using electricity acquired under contracts concluded before 1 January 2002.


6.   Where a distribution system operator is responsible for balancing the distribution system, rules adopted by it for that purpose shall be objective, transparent and non-discriminatory, including rules for the charging of system users of their networks for energy imbalance. Terms and conditions, including rules and tariffs, for the provision of such services by distribution system operators shall be established in accordance with Article 37(6) in a non-discriminatory and cost-reflective way and shall be published.


7.   When planning the development of the distribution network, energy efficiency/demand-side management measures or distributed generation that might supplant the need to upgrade or replace electricity capacity shall be considered by the distribution system operator.


Article 26
Unbundling of distribution system operators


1.   Where the distribution system operator is part of a vertically integrated undertaking, it shall be independent at least in terms of its legal form, organisation and decision making from other activities not relating to distribution. Those rules shall not create an obligation to separate the ownership of assets of the distribution system operator from the vertically integrated undertaking.


2.   In addition to the requirements under paragraph 1, where the distribution system operator is part of a vertically integrated undertaking, it shall be independent in terms of its organisation and decision-making from the other activities not related to distribution. In order to achieve this, the following minimum criteria shall apply:


(a) those persons responsible for the management of the distribution system operator must not participate in company structures of the integrated electricity undertaking responsible, directly or indirectly, for the day-to-day operation of the generation, transmission or supply of electricity;


(b) appropriate measures must be taken to ensure that the professional interests of the persons responsible for the management of the distribution system operator are taken into account in a manner that ensures that they are capable of acting independently;


(c) the distribution system operator must have effective decision-making rights, independent from the integrated electricity undertaking, with respect to assets necessary to operate, maintain or develop the network. In order to fulfil those tasks, the distribution system operator shall have at its disposal the necessary resources including human, technical, physical and financial resources. This should not prevent the existence of appropriate coordination mechanisms to ensure that the economic and management supervision rights of the parent company in respect of return on assets, regulated indirectly in accordance with Article 37(6), in a subsidiary are protected. In particular, this shall enable the parent company to approve the annual financial plan, or any equivalent instrument, of the distribution system operator and to set global limits on the levels of indebtedness of its subsidiary. It shall not permit the parent company to give instructions regarding day-to-day operations, nor with respect to individual decisions concerning the construction or upgrading of distribution lines, that do not exceed the terms of the approved financial plan, or any equivalent instrument; and


(d) the distribution system operator must establish a compliance programme, which sets out measures taken to ensure that discriminatory conduct is excluded, and ensure that observance of it is adequately monitored. The compliance programme shall set out the specific obligations of employees to meet that objective. An annual report, setting out the measures taken, shall be submitted by the person or body responsible for monitoring the compliance programme, the compliance officer of the distribution system operator, to the regulatory authority referred to in Article 35(1) and shall be published. The compliance officer of the distribution system operator shall be fully independent and shall have access to all the necessary information of the distribution system operator and any affiliated undertaking to fulfil his task.


3.   Where the distribution system operator is part of a vertically integrated undertaking, the Member States shall ensure that the activities of the distribution system operator are monitored by regulatory authorities or other competent bodies so that it cannot take advantage of its vertical integration to distort competition. In particular, vertically integrated distribution system operators shall not, in their communication and branding, create confusion in respect of the separate identity of the supply branch of the vertically integrated undertaking.


4.   Member States may decide not to apply paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 to integrated electricity undertakings serving less than 100 000 connected customers, or serving small isolated systems.


Article 27
Confidentiality obligation of distribution system operators


Without prejudice to Article 30 or any other legal duty to disclose information, the distribution system operator must preserve the confidentiality of commercially sensitive information obtained in the course of carrying out its business, and shall prevent information about its own activities which may be commercially advantageous being disclosed in a discriminatory manner.

 

 

 

 

Articles 30-39 of the Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the internal market for electricity (recast) on common rules for the internal market in electricity (recast), 30.11.2016, COM(2016) 864 final 2016/0380 (COD)

 

Article 30 


Designation of distribution system operators


Member States shall designate or shall require undertakings that own or are responsible for distribution systems to designate, for a period of time to be determined by Member States having regard to considerations of efficiency and economic balance, one or more distribution system operators.

 

Article 31
Tasks of distribution system operators

 

1. The distribution system operator shall be responsible for ensuring the long-term ability of the system to meet reasonable demands for the distribution of electricity, for operating, maintaining and developing under economic conditions a secure, reliable and efficient electricity distribution system in its area with due regard for the environment and energy efficiency.

 

2. In any event, it must not discriminate between system users or classes of system users, particularly in favour of its related undertakings.


3. The distribution system operator shall provide system users with the information they need for efficient access to, including use of, the system.


4. A Member State may require the distribution system operator, when dispatching generating installations, to give priority to generating installations using renewable energy sources or waste or producing combined heat and power, in accordance with Article 11 [recast of Regulation 714/2009 as proposed by COM(2016)861/2].


5. Each distribution system operator shall procure the energy it uses to cover energy losses and the non-frequency ancillary services in its system according to transparent, non-discriminatory and market based procedures, whenever it has such a function. Unless justified by a cost-benefit analysis, the procurement of non-frequency ancillary services by a distribution system operator shall be transparent, non-discriminatory and market- based ensuring effective participation of all market participants including renewable energy sources, demand response, energy storage facilities and aggregators, in particular by requiring regulatory authorities or distribution system operators in close cooperation with all market participants, to define technical modalities for participation in these markets on the basis of the technical requirements of these markets and the capabilities of all market participants.



 

Article 32 


Tasks of distribution system operators in the use of flexibility

 

1. Member States shall provide the necessary regulatory framework to allow and incentivise distribution system operators to procure services in order to improve efficiencies in the operation and development of the distribution system, including local congestion management. In particular, regulatory frameworks shall enable distribution system operators to procure services from resources such as distributed generation, demand response or storage and consider energy efficiency measures, which may supplant the need to upgrade or replace electricity capacity and which support the efficient and secure operation of the distribution system. Distribution system operators shall procure these services according to transparent, non- discriminatory and market based procedures.


Distribution system operators shall define standardised market products for the services procured ensuring effective participation of all market participants including renewable energy sources, demand response, and aggregators. Distribution system operators shall exchange all necessary information and coordinate with transmission system operators in order to ensure the optimal utilisation of resources, ensure the secure and efficient operation of the system and facilitate market development. Distribution system operators shall be adequately remunerated for the procurement of such services in order to recover at least the corresponding expenses, including the necessary information and communication technologies expenses, including expenses which correspond to the necessary information and communication infrastructure.


2. The development of a distribution system shall be based on a transparent network development plan that distribution system operators shall submit every two years to the regulatory authority. The network development plan shall contain the planned investments for the next five to ten years, with particular emphasis on the main distribution infrastructure which is required in order to connect new generation capacity and new loads including re-charging points for electric vehicles. The network development plan shall also demonstrate the use of demand response, energy efficiency, energy storage facilities or other resources that distribution system operator is using as an alternative to system expansion.


The regulatory authority shall consult all current or potential system users on the network development plan. The regulatory authority shall publish the result of the consultation process on the proposed investments.


Member States may decide not to apply this obligation to integrated undertakings serving less than 100 000 connected consumers, or serving isolated systems.

 

Article 33
Integration of electro-mobility into the electricity network

 

1. Member States shall provide the necessary regulatory framework to facilitate the connection of publicly accessible and private recharging points to the distribution networks. Member States shall ensure that distribution system operators cooperate on a non-discriminatory basis with any undertaking that owns, develops, operates or manages recharging points for electric vehicles, including with regard to connection to the grid.


2. Member States may allow distribution system operators to own, develop, manage or operate recharging points for electric vehicles only if the following conditions are fulfilled:


(a) other parties, following an open and transparent tendering procedure, have not expressed their interest to own, develop, manage or operate recharging points for electric vehicles;


(b) the regulatory authority has granted its approval.


3. Articles 35 and 56 shall apply to distribution system operators engaged in ownership, development, operation or management of recharging points.


4. Member States shall perform at regular intervals or at least every five years a public consultation in order to re-assess the potential interest of market parties to own, develop, operate or manage recharging points for electric vehicles. In case the public consultation indicates that third parties are able to own, develop, operate or manage such points, Member States shall ensure that distribution system operators' activities in this regard are phased-out.

 


Article 34 


Tasks of distribution system operators in data management

 

Member States shall ensure that all eligible parties have non-discriminatory access to data under clear and equal terms. In Member States where smart metering systems have been implemented according to Article 19 and distribution system operators are involved in data management, compliance programmes as set in Article 35(2)(d) shall include specific measures in order to exclude discriminatory access to data from eligible parties as provided for in Article 23. Where distribution system operators are not subject to Article 35(1), (2) and (3), Member States shall take all necessary measures to ensure that the vertically integrated undertaking do not have privileged access to data for the conduct of its supply activity.

 

Article 35
Unbundling of distribution system operators


1. Where the distribution system operator is part of a vertically integrated undertaking, it shall be independent at least in terms of its legal form, organisation and decision making from other activities not relating to distribution. Those rules shall not create an obligation to separate the ownership of assets of the distribution system operator from the vertically integrated undertaking.


2. In addition to the requirements under paragraph 1, where the distribution system operator is part of a vertically integrated undertaking, it shall be independent in terms of its organisation and decision-making from the other activities not related to distribution. In order to achieve this, the following minimum criteria shall apply:


(a)  those persons responsible for the management of the distribution system operator must not participate in company structures of the integrated electricity undertaking responsible, directly or indirectly, for the day-to-day operation of the generation, transmission or supply of electricity;


(b)  appropriate measures must be taken to ensure that the professional interests of the persons responsible for the management of the distribution system operator are taken into account in a manner that ensures that they are capable of acting independently;


(c)  the distribution system operator must have effective decision-making rights, independent from the integrated electricity undertaking, with respect to assets necessary to operate, maintain or develop the network. In order to fulfil those tasks, the distribution system operator shall have at its disposal the necessary resources including human, technical, physical and financial resources. This should not prevent the existence of appropriate coordination mechanisms to ensure that the economic and management supervision rights of the parent company in respect of return on assets, regulated indirectly in accordance with Article 59(6), in a subsidiary are protected. In particular, this shall enable the parent company to approve the annual financial plan, or any equivalent instrument, of the distribution system operator and to set global limits on the levels of indebtedness of its subsidiary. It shall not permit the parent company to give instructions regarding day-to-day operations, nor with respect to individual decisions concerning the construction or upgrading of distribution lines, that do not exceed the terms of the approved financial plan, or any equivalent instrument; and


(d) the distribution system operator must establish a compliance programme, which sets out measures taken to ensure that discriminatory conduct is excluded, and ensure that observance of it is adequately monitored. The compliance programme shall set out the specific obligations of employees to meet that objective. An annual report, setting out the measures taken, shall be submitted by the person or body responsible for monitoring the compliance programme, the compliance officer of the distribution system operator, to the regulatory authority referred to in Article 57(1) and shall be published. The compliance officer of the distribution system operator shall be fully independent and shall have access to all the necessary information of the distribution system operator and any affiliated undertaking to fulfil his task.


3. Where the distribution system operator is part of a vertically integrated undertaking, the Member States shall ensure that the activities of the distribution system operator are monitored by regulatory authorities or other competent bodies so that it cannot take advantage of its vertical integration to distort competition. In particular, vertically integrated distribution system operators shall not, in their communication and branding, create confusion in respect of the separate identity of the supply branch of the vertically integrated undertaking.


4. Member States may decide not to apply paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 to integrated electricity undertakings serving less than 100000 connected customers, or serving small isolated systems.


Article 36 


Ownership of storage facilities


1. Distribution system operators shall not be allowed to own, develop, manage or operate energy storage facilities.


2. By way of derogation from paragraph 1, Member States may allow distribution system operators to own, develop, manage or operate storage facilities only if the following conditions are fulfilled:


(a) other parties, following an open and transparent tendering procedure, have not expressed their interest to own, develop, manage or operate storage facilities;


(b)  such facilities are necessary for the distribution system operators to fulfil their obligations under this Directive for the efficient, reliable and secure operation of the distribution system; and


(c)  the regulatory authority has assessed the necessity of such derogation taking into account the conditions under points (a) and (b) and has granted its approval.


3. Articles 35 and 56 shall apply to distribution system operators engaged in ownership, development, operation or management of energy storage facilities.


4. Regulatory authorities shall perform at regular intervals or at least every five years a public consultation in order to re-assess the potential interest of market parties to invest, develop, operate or manage energy storage facilities. In case the public consultation indicates that third parties are able to own, develop, operate or manage such facilities, Member States shall ensure that distribution system operators' activities in this regard are phased-out.

 

Article 37


Confidentiality obligation of distribution system operators


Without prejudice to Article 55 or any other legal duty to disclose information, the distribution system operator must preserve the confidentiality of commercially sensitive information obtained in the course of carrying out its business, and shall prevent information about its own activities which may be commercially advantageous being disclosed in a discriminatory manner.

 

Article 38
Closed distribution systems


1. Member States may provide for national regulatory authorities or other competent authorities to classify a system which distributes electricity within a geographically confined industrial, commercial or shared services site and does not, without prejudice to paragraph 4, supply household customers, as a closed distribution system if:


(a)  for specific technical or safety reasons, the operations or the production process of the users of that system are integrated; or


(b)  that system distributes electricity primarily to the owner or operator of the system or their related undertakings.


2. Member States may provide for national regulatory authorities to exempt the operator of a closed distribution system from:
(a) the requirement under Article 31(5) to procure the energy it uses to cover energy losses and reserve capacity the non-frequency ancillary servicesin its system according to transparent, non-discriminatory and market based procedures;

 

(b) the requirement under Article 6(1) that tariffs, or the methodologies underlying their calculation, are approved prior to their entry into force in accordance with Article 59 (1).

 

3. Where an exemption is granted under paragraph 2, the applicable tariffs, or the methodologies underlying their calculation, shall be reviewed and approved in accordance with Article 59(1) upon request by a user of the closed distribution system.


4. Incidental use by a small number of households with employment or similar associations with the owner of the distribution system and located within the area served by a closed distribution system shall not preclude an exemption under paragraph 2 being granted.


5. Closed distribution systems shall be considered as distribution systems for the purpose of the Directive.

 

Article 39


Combined operator


Article 35(1) shall not prevent the operation of a combined transmission and distribution system operator provided that operator complies with Articles 43(1), or 44 and 45, or Section 3 or falls under Article 66(2).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Directive (EU) 2019/944 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 on common rules for the internal market in electricity (recast)

 

Recital 47

 

This Directive empowers Member States to allow citizen energy communities to become distribution system operators either under the general regime or as ‘closed distribution system operators’. Once a citizen energy community is granted the status of a distribution system operator, it should be treated as, and be subject to the same obligations as, a distribution system operator. The provisions of this Directive on citizen energy communities only clarify aspects of distribution system operation that are likely to be relevant for citizen energy communities, while other aspects of distribution system operation apply in accordance with the rules relating to distribution system operators.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IMG 0744

    Documentation    

 

 

 

 

 

 

Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC, Article 2(6) and Articles 24-27

 

TSO – DSO Report on an integrated approach to an Active System Management

 

Infrastructure analytical grid for energy infrastructure

 

New Services and DSO Involvement, A CEER Conclusions Paper, Ref: C18-DS-46-08, 22 March 2019

 

European Energy Regulators’ White Paper # 2, The Role of the DSO, Relevant to European Commission’s Clean Energy Proposals 15 May 2017

 

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the internal market for electricity (recast), 30.11.2016, COM(2016) 861 final 2016/0379 (COD) and Annex

 

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the internal market for electricity (recast) on common rules for the internal market in electricity (recast), 30.11.2016, COM(2016) 864 final 2016/0380 (COD, Articles 30-39 and Annexes

 

Incentives Schemes for regulating DSOs, including for Innovation, Consultation Paper, Ref: C16-DS-28-03 Final version 24 January 2017

 

CEER Position Paper on the Future DSO and TSO Relationship, Ref: C16-DS-26-04, 21 September 2016

 

Status Review on the Implementation of Distribution System Operators' Unbundling Provisions of the 3rd Energy Package, CEER Status Review, Ref: C15-LTF-43-03, 1 April 2016

 

CEER Report on Investment Conditions in European Countries, Ref:C15-IRB-28-03, 14 March 2016

 

The Future Role of DSOs, A CEER Conclusions Paper, 13 July 2015, Ref: C15-DSO-16-03

 

 

 

 

 

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    Links    

 

 

 

 

 

European Distribution System Operators' Association for Smart Grids

 

Network tariff

 

EU DSO Entity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Last Updated on Friday, 13 September 2019 09:31
 

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